Assesses the economic performance and social consequences of China's developmental policies over the past four decades, with a focus on transformations of the Chinese countryside. Reconsiders China's development in light of the economic and social crisis experienced there in the late 1980s. Addresses the origins of cooperative and collective approaches to the "agrarian question" in Marxist and Leninist thought and early Soviet practice, and compares various strategies of socialist agrarian development. Examines cooperative and collective formation in China's countryside. Studies original accumulation in China and Taiwan, and investigates whether there are substantial differences between capitalist and socialist industrialization in late-developing countries. Analyzes Chinese rural income inequality and how it was affected by state policy, focusing on the period 1949-79. Considers the social consequences of development choices in China, focusing on the changing character of city-countryside and state-sector cleavages in China from land reform and collectivization to the post-Mao reforms of the 1980s. Examines landownership rights in China over the period 1955 to 1980, changes in ownership relations in the 1980s, and the social and economic implications of changes in landownership. Discusses the social origins and limits of the Chinese democratic movement. Selden is Professor of Sociology and History and an Associate of the Fernand Braudel Center, the State University of New York, Binghamton. Index.